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Home > PTSD > Research
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), More than Just Anxiety Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

After exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which the individual was exposed to extreme personal danger, an anxiety disorder by the name of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD can develop. Possible traumatic events leading to PTSD include but are not limited to, personal assaults like rape or mugging, accidents, military combat, or natural or human caused disaster. PTSD is an anxiety disorder and though there is an entirely different section on anxiety disorders listed below, we felt there was enough information on this disorder for it to be discussed independently.

 
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Research
What Are Scientists Learning From Research?
There are a wide range of basic, clinical, and genetic studies of PTSD. In addition, NIMH has a special funding mechanism, called RAPID Grants, that allows researchers to immediately visit the scenes of disasters, such as plane crashes or floods and hurricanes, to study the acute effects of the event and the effectiveness of early intervention. Studies in animals and humans have focused on pinpointing the specific brain areas and circuits involved in anxiety and fear, which are important for understanding anxiety disorders such as PTSD. Fear, an emotion that evolved to deal with danger, causes an automatic, rapid protective response in many systems of the body. It has been found that the body's fear response is coordinated by a small structure deep inside the brain, called the amygdala. Though the amygdale is relatively small, it is a very complicated structure, and recent research suggests that different anxiety disorders may be associated with abnormal activation of the amygdala.
The following are also recent research findings:
In brain imaging studies, researchers have found that the hippocampus-a part of the brain critical to memory and emotion-appears to be different in cases of PTSD. Scientists are investigating whether this is related to short-term memory problems. Changes in the hippocampus are thought to be responsible for intrusive memories and flashbacks that occur in people with this disorder. People with PTSD tend to have abnormal levels of key hormones involved in response to stress. Some studies have shown that cortisol levels are lower than normal and epinephrine and norepinephrine are higher than normal.
When people are in danger, they produce high levels of natural opiates, which can temporarily mask pain. Scientists have found that people with PTSD continue to produce those higher levels even after the danger has passed; this may lead to the blunted emotions associated with the condition. Research to understand the neurotransmitter systems involved in memories of emotionally charged events may lead to discovery of medications or psychosocial interventions that, if given early, could block the development of PTSD symptoms.
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